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  倡导环境责任 我们更需要行动
 
  发布时间:2008/12/14 9:51:52  所属期数:2008.6    被阅览数:5180次  
 

 
 

    在谈到席卷全球的金融危机成因时,有专家认为,与其说是金融监管不严所致,不如说是金融寡头的唯利是图和推卸社会责任酿成今日的苦果。“大敌”当前,全球上下急寻药方,以安全渡过金融“严冬”。

    但与此同时,在动辄数万亿的“救市”大单面前,在世界各国和国际社会步调一致的行动面前,我们没有理由相信渡不过这次金融“严冬”,但是我们也没有理由以应付金融危机为由而视环境危机于不顾,将其“束之高阁”。

    房还是那间房,车还是那辆车,院子还是那个院子,金融危机影响的是“物”的货币价值,在过几年紧日子之后,夏威夷Waikiki海滩和曼哈顿第五大道将会重现往日的喧嚣。但是,生态危机的后果却远没有这样简单。科学家告诉我们,像原始森林这样的生态环境一旦遭到破坏,像大熊猫这样的物种一旦灭绝,就再也无法恢复和再生,这就是我们通常讲的环境退化的不可逆转性。2005年发表的联合国“千年生态系统评估报告”明确指出,“人类从根本上、很大程度上,不可逆转地改变着地球上的生物多样性,大多数变化意味着生物多样性的丧失……过去几百年中,人类活动加快了物种灭绝的速度,达到地球历史背景速度的1000倍。”

    与解决金融危机的紧迫感不同,人们对环境危机的感受之所以远没有身家缩水和房产贬值那么敏感,这与全球化背景下产业的转移和企业社会责任缺失不无关系。

    200多年前蒸汽水泵和随后蒸汽机车的出现,使煤炭的规模化开采和运输成为可能,掀开了工业革命的大幕,推动人类从依赖木材向使用煤炭等矿物燃料转变,从而奠定了当今工业文明的能源基础。然而与煤炭的大规模开采和应用相伴的是煤矿瓦斯爆炸、冒顶、透水和矿工死亡,是笼罩在伦敦和马斯河谷上空不散的烟雾。

    今天,工业革命的发祥地以及欧美发达国家已经远离了浓浓的煤烟,然而矿难和污染并未在地球上消失,而是借助全球化和产业升级在异国重演。环境污染和生态破坏的区域性特点往往将污染危害或生态损失局限在当地,从而远离最终的消费者,也让投资人或下游的采购商看不到产地的污水、浓烟和有毒有害废弃物,他们“眼不见心不烦”,从而心安理得地享受污染转移带来的红利。然而,环境生态系统的统一性又告诉我们,“眼不见心不烦”是相对的。转嫁出去的污染会透过食物链与自家餐桌上的食物联系到一起,而转移排放的温室气体最终会进入大气层成为引起全球气候变化的罪魁祸首。

    近年来,一些跨国公司在零配件和产品采购工程中,提出绿化供应链的口号,要求环境表现不佳的供应商拿出限期整改的解决方案,甚至取消无法达标者的供货资格。从推动企业遵守环境法律法规的角度看,这种做法无疑是有效和有益的,就签订单的采购商来说,与不闻不问供应商的环境表现比这应该是个进步。

    但是,仅提出环保要求还远远不够。当今的国际贸易规则下,采购商往往拥有巨大的决定采购价格的能力,拥有给供应商留下多少利润空间的能力,假若前者不能确保后者获得合理的收入,那么生产粮食、茶叶、咖啡、水果的农户就不得不通过将林地、湿地、草场转换为农业用地以及加大化肥的施用量来增加产量维持生存,而生产打火机、服装、玩具、家电的工厂则会放弃建设污染治理设施或关闭污水处理和消烟除尘装置来节省支出,以生态和环境赤字维持生存。国际贸易中的这种具有浓厚“丛林法则”色彩的价格垄断,迫使供应商将本该承担的环境治理责任转向社会,用“外部不经济换取内部经济”。如此看来,不关心供应商的环境表现的采购商与要求供应商遵守法律法规但剥夺其守法能力的相比,只是“五十步笑百步”而已。

    担当环境责任,不仅仅是向别人提出环境要求,也不是一味指责供应商不履行环境责任,而是首先自身环保,同时又给别人环保留出一条路。国与国之间,比如发达国家与发展中国家之间应该如此;地区与地区之间,一个国家的发达地区与欠发达地区之间也应该遵循这样的准则。

Actions are needed to Advocate Environmental Responsibility

By Jia Feng

     When analyzing the root of the global financial crises, some experts hold that it is the consequence caused by the greed of financial oligarchies and their shirking of social responsibilities rather than the reckless financial supervision. Faced with the challenges, the world is now searching for a way out to survive the bitter financial winter.

     We have every reason to believe that the whole world can survive and brace a new spring thanks to the concerted efforts made by the international society and the trillion bailout packages proposed by various countries. At the same time, however, we have no reason to neglect the world environmental crisis when dealing with the financial challenges.

     Global financial crisis gives direct influence on the price of commodities, like cars and houses. After several years’ grim and tight economy, the Waikiki beach in Hawaii and the Manhattan Fifth Road will sure return to prosperity again. The consequences of ecological crisis, however, are far from this simple. Scientists tell us that once the ecological environment likes the virgin forest being destroyed and precious species like giant pandas extinct, there is no possibility to restore. This is what we called the irreversibility of the environment degradation. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment issued by UN in 2005 clearly indicates: “Human beings have greatly and basically changed the biodiversity in an irreversible way; and most of the changes signify the extinction of biodiversity…In the past several hundreds of years, human activities have speed up the species extinction, being 1,000 times than that of the historical speed on the earth.”

     Unlike the imperatives to fight against the financial crises, people are less sensitive to the environment crisis than the shrinking number on the bank account and the depreciation of real estate property, bearing a close relationship to the industrial transfer and the lack of corporate social responsibility against the backdrop of globalization.

     The emergences of steam pumps and steam locomotives made the scaled coal exploration and transportation a real possibility, ushering into the industrial revolution, which has greatly change people’s dependency on wood to fossil fuels like coal, laying the energy basis for the industrial civilization. However, the scaled exploration and usage of coal come with the mine gas blast, roof fall, water permeating, the death of mine workers and the smog hanging over London and Maas Valley.

     The cradle of industrial revolution and developed countries in Europe and the US are now clean without the heavy smog. However, with globalization and the industrial upgrading, mine incidents and pollution still happen in other countries around the world. Environmental pollution and ecological destruction often limit the damages and losses within a certain region where is far from the end users, investors, and purchasers in the down stream. Without seeing the polluted water, heavy smog and exotic substances, people intend to take the profits at the sacrifice of environmental pollution for granted. The relevance between environment and ecological system, however, decides the inevitability for the influence caused by our own deeds. Pollution in other countries can still affect our food through food chain; greenhouse gases will finally enter the atmosphere to cause global climate change.

     In recent years, some transnational enterprises have proposed the slogan of Green Supply Chain in the procurement of components and products, requiring the low-environmentally-performed suppliers to provide solutions within a certain period; otherwise, the unqualified suppliers will be eliminated from the supply chain. From the perspective of promoting enterprises to abide by environmental laws and regulations, this action is indeed effective yet conducive. It is a step further for the procurers to judge the suppliers’ environment performance.

     The environmental performance required by the procurers is far from enough. In the current international trade rules and regulations, the procurers boast decisive power for the procurement price and the say for the profits leaving to the suppliers. If the procurers fail to guarantee the rational income of supplies

 
 

 
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