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  节能减排,政府先行
 
  发布时间:2007/9/27 12:11:20  所属期数:2007.5    被阅览数:3164次  
 

 
 

     贾峰

     伴随着经济高速增长而来的环境危机和资源短缺,节能减排已成为席卷全球的新浪潮。新兴国家,诸如印度、中国和巴西等如此,即便是像挪威、卢森堡、德国等这样的发达国家同样也紧锣密鼓,力求在这轮低碳经济的竞争中占据有利地形。

     8月底,笔者与来自人民日报、中央电视台、中国新闻社和中国环境报等单位记者组成的“欧洲环保之窗”电视片联合采访组,用四周时间先后走访了欧洲9国,这些国家优美的环境固然令人艳羡,但它们开发可再生能源心情之急迫,实施节能减排效果之显著,给笔者留下的印象更为深刻。

     在卢森堡,安赛乐米塔尔集团所属普莱莫瑞克公司(PRIMOREC SA),将集团四家钢铁厂产生的废渣、粉尘集中处置,不仅实现污染物质的零排放,避免损害公众健康和污染环境,而且利用独家专有技术从中提炼出生铁和高含量的锌份,实现经济效益和环境效益的双赢。

     在挪威,BV生物柴油公司利用菜籽油生产低燃点生物柴油,2007年产量10万吨,明年初增产到22万吨,其产品不仅供应传统的石化加油站,而且在全球范围率先建立起独立于石油公司运营的加油站,为顾客提供纯度为百分百的生物柴油,政府则以免收其所得税的方式予以财政支持。

     以上两个案例,一个是点“石”成“金”、变害为利,一个是开发低碳排放的可再生能源,其成功的背后无不显现政府支持节能减排,促进低碳经济发展的坚定不移的身影。正是因为政府制订了严格的环境法律和污染物排放标准,才确保炼钢废气、废渣和粉尘既不允许向空中排放也不能任意倾倒。而另一方面,政府出台的一系列鼓励资源再生利用和循环经济发展的法规,让企业找到了“环保”的理由和动力。政府的这一堵和一疏,完美体现了政府在节能减排中的特定作用。

     也是在挪威,政府与企业、研究机构和环保团体联手,于2003年启动了连接首都奥斯陆到西海岸港口城市卑尔根全长580公里的“氢高速公路”项目。它们计划用6年时间在高速公路沿线建设7个氢气加气站,气源就近用太阳能、生物质能等可再生能源和天然气、水电等清洁能源来提供,目前已有两个加氢站投入运行。挪威的氢高速的下一个目标是在北欧建设氢高速公路网络。当其它国家还沉浸在是否发展氢经济的争论中时,挪威以应对气候变化和寻找可再生能源为契机,带动和整合各种高新技术的研发和产业化,推动政府环境政策和制度创新,增强本国的竞争力,极具战略意义,堪称21世纪的阿波罗登月工程。

     在德国,从1991年起历时8年,耗资6亿马克,在联邦议会大厦屋顶安装了3600平方米的光伏发电装置,设计建造了议会议事大厅自然采光系统和地热通风联合发电及热回收系统,使议会大厦能耗和运转费用大大降低,整个大厦设备的二氧化碳年排放量从7000吨最低可减少到400吨,从而使这座有100多年历史的老建筑成为德国最“绿”的建筑之一。议会大厦的历史价值与其自然巧妙的生态设计相叠加,使其成为与科隆大教堂和新天鹅堡齐名的德国三大观光景点,更是一个环境教育的大课堂和节能减排的示范基地,每日有近万名游客能亲身体验绿色节能建筑的神奇。

     如果说前面的两个案例说明的是政府应站在战略的高度,通过其独有的立法和行政职能来规范社会发展,建立引导人类走向可持续发展的坐标体系和路线图的话,那么后面的两个案例则告诉我们,政府还应在日常办公中,推行绿色采购,带头节能和使用可再生能源,用实际行动做节能减排的先锋。

     总之,政府应做可持续发展思想与实践的倡导者和先行者,率先走向绿色生态文明。若政府自身做不到节能减排,又何以教育和推动工商企业和社会大众去做呢?

Government, the Leader of Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction

     By Jia Feng

     Energy Saving and pollution reduction have become a new global trend due to environment deterioration and resource exemption caused by rapid economic growth. Not only emerging countries like India, China and Brazil, but also developed countries like Norway, Luxemburg and Germany are now making every effort to hold positive positions in the competition of low carbon economy.

     In the late August, I have spent 4 weeks to visit 9 European countries with ‘The Window of European Environmental Protection’, a joint interview group composing of journalists from People’s Daily, CCTV, China News and China Environment News. The beautiful natural scenes in those countries attracted our interest and attention. It is more impressive, however, to witness their efforts to develop renewable energies and the achievements in energy saving and pollution reduction.

     Primorec SA, an affiliated company to ArcelorMittal in Luxemburg, conducts integrated treatment of waste residue and dust produced by 4 steel factories. Through this effort, it has eliminated the emission of pollutant, protecting the public health and the environment. What’s more, it has created a special patent technology to extract pig iron and high-concentrated Zinc from the waste, achieving both economic and environmental interests.

     In Norway, BV ENERGI adopts rapeseed oil to produce low flash-point biodiesel with the annual production reaching 100,000 tons in 2007. The production will be increased to 220,000 tons in the early next year. BV not only supplies the traditional oil and gas stations, but also established biodiesel stations operating independently from world oil companies. The Norwegian government has given strong financial support for the development of diesel stations by exempting income tax.

     In the two above-mentioned cases, Luxemburg has changed the waste to useful things while Norway developed low carbon emission renewable energies. Their success demonstrated the governments’ unswerving support for energy saving, pollution reduction and the development of low carbon economy. Thanks to the strict environmental laws and pollutant emission standards stipulated by the government, the waste gas, residue and dust produced in steel factories has no access to irresponsible discharge. In addition, laws and regulations to encourage the utilization of renewable energies and the development of recycled economy are incentives for enterprises to protect the environment. Through the differentiated measures, the government has played a special and irreplaceable role in energy saving and pollution reduction.?

     Also in Norway, the government has cooperated with enterprises, research institutes and environmental protection organizations to initiate the Hydrogen Expressway Project in 2003. This project aims to build 7 hydrogen gas stations by using renewable energies like solar power and biomass as well as clean energies like natural gas and hydropower along the 580 km expressway connecting Oslo and a coastal city Bergen in 6 years. Currently, 2 of the stations have been put into operation. The next goal of the project is to build a hydrogen expressway network throughout the North Europe. While the development of hydrogen economy remains controversial in other countries, it has strategic significance for Norway to develop renewable resources to solve climate change problems, so as to promote and integrate the R&D as well as the industrialization of hi-techs, promote the innovation of government’s environmental policy and mechanism as well as improve the national competitiveness. The program can be compared as Project Apollo in the 21st century.

     In Germany, 3600m2 photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems has been installed on the roof of the federal congress building since 1991, costing 600 million German Mark and 8 year to complete. It has also designed and built natural light collecting system in the congress hall, the geo-thermal and wind power generation system and heat recycling system. Thanks to these efforts, the energy consumption and operation expense of the building have been greatly reduced, cutting its annual CO2 emission from 7000 tons to 400 tons, earning the fame of the Greenest Building of Germany for this old architecture boasting a history of more than 100 years. With its historical value and the ecological design, the federal congress building is<

 
 

 
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