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  告别黑色工业文明 迈向绿色生态文明
 
  发布时间:2007/11/26 12:06:49  所属期数:2007.6    被阅览数:3041次  
 

 
 

     贾峰

     十七大的召开,吸引了全球的目光。

     这不仅是大家想知道谁将成为中国政坛升起的新星,而是更关注中国这列高速行驶近30年的列车能否继续沿着既定的轨道奔驰下去。因为,这不仅关乎着中国13亿人民的未来,更与世界另外五分之四的人口的命运息息相关。

     回顾过去的29年,中国GDP总量增长超过10倍,极大改善了中国人民的生活,对全球脱贫的贡献率超过67%,同时也为世界提供了物美价廉的产品。从美洲到欧洲,从亚洲到大洋洲和非洲,从微波炉、电视机等家用电器,到手机、电脑等IT设备,世界无不从中国的发展中获益。随着中国出口总量明后年跃居世界第一,她名副其实地成为引领全球经济发展的火车头。

     但是,二氧化硫、化学需氧量、持久性有机污染物年排放总量中国位居世界第一,也引起世界的忧虑和担心。法国论坛报记者蒂埃里·德尔里厄写道,“上世纪90年代中期的日本神户大地震夺走了该国想要尽快从危机中恢复过来的希望,而中国环境持续恶化很有可能导致严重后果,并极大地影响其经济。”

     与发达国家比较,中国环境污染的历史要短的多,污染物的累计排放总量少的多,人均累计排放水平更是低的多。在某些人眼里来说,这些数字往往是“一个令人不快的真相- An Inconvenient Truth”(2007年诺贝尔和平奖得主阿尔·戈尔主演并获得戛纳和奥斯卡最佳记录片的影片)。不考虑中国仍处于较低的发展阶段,不承认中国人均生活水平、资金和技术能力与发达国家的差距,不意识到发达国家在过去百年里累计排放的污染物如二氧化碳占大气中二氧化碳的较高比率的事实,而一味要求中国承担与发达国家相同的环境保护义务是不公平的,更是不道德的,是在剥夺中国人民的发展权。

     尽管如此,中国并未因为以上事实而不承担与其能力相匹配的保护环境的义务。事实上,中国已经充分意识到环境危机的严重性和解决挑战的紧迫性。正如中共十七大报告表述的那样,“前进中还面临不少困难和问题,突出的是:经济增长的资源环境代价过大。”

     正因如此,中国将节能减排作为调整经济结构,实现社会经济又好又快发展的战略突破口。依照“十一五”规划确定的节能要求,在2010年以前,中国至少少消耗5亿吨煤炭,少排放15亿吨二氧化碳。与世界各国减少温室气体排放的目标想比,中国的减排数量是空前的。

     不仅如此,中共十七大报告提出要“建设生态文明,基本形成节约窗体底端

     能源资源和保护生态环境的产业结构、增长方式、消费模式。循环经济形成较大规模,可再生能源比重显著上升。主要污染物排放得到有效控制,生态环境质量明显改善。生态文明观念在全社会牢固树立。”

     作为全面建设小康社会的奋斗目标之一,以上的要求标志着中国告别“先污染后治理”的传统工业文明,进而掀起一场生态文明的大变革的决心。也许这正是法国总统萨科齐在11月27日清华大学演讲中所期待的,在应对气候变化的挑战中,“中国比历史上以往任何时期都能够对世界做出更大的贡献。 我们需要中国!”

     当然,中国同样需要世界。需要资金、技术和理解。发达国家在理解中国依然是一个尚未完全实现全面小康和彻底告别贫困的国家的前提下,认识到对中国可持续发展给予支持与帮助的必要性并付诸于行动,就是对改善全球环境状况,减缓和适应气候变化的贡献,加快中国乃至世界实现低碳经济的步伐。

     告别黑色的工业文明,迈向绿色的生态文明,正成为强大的国家意志,反映了十三亿中国人民的心声,这不仅惠及中国人,更有助于“呵护人类赖以生存的地球家园”。

Farewell to the Black Industrial Culture and Head for the Green Conservation Culture

     By Jia Feng

     The 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) drew the world’s close attention.

     The world are not only eagerly to know who would be the newly-emerged figures on China’s political forum but also focusing on whether China, being regarded as an express train driving for near thirteen years is able to continue its progress on the preset track, which is closely related to the future of 1.3 billion Chinese people, as well as to the fate of the rest four fifths population in the world.

     Viewing the past 29-year’s development, China’s GDP growth has increased over ten folds, which also brought great improvement to Chinese people’s living situation and produced a remarkable contribution rate of 67% to the world’s poverty alleviation. Meanwhile, China also provided the world with products of low price and good quality - from household electrical appliances such as microwave ovens, televisions, to IT products such as cellular phones and computers. From America to Europe, from Asia to Oceania, and Africa, people all over the world have received benefits from China’s rapid development. With the prediction that China’s export volume will possibly rank the first next year or the year after, China will surely be worthy of the name as the engine of global economic development.

     Unfortunately, China’s annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also ranked the first in the world, which aroused anxiety and concerns from the international community. French journalist Thierry Thuillier from La Tribune wrote: “The devastating earthquake took place in Kobe, Japan in the 90s last century had destroyed Japan’s hope of quick recovery from crisis, while the continual deterioration of environmental situation in China may possibly lead to serious outcomes and affect the country’s economy in a large scale.”

     However, China’s history of environmental pollution is much shorter and the total volume of pollutants discharge is also relatively smaller, comparing with those of the developed countries. To some people, these figures concerning to China’s environmental issues might be “An Inconvenient Truth” (title of a film that starred by Al Gore and won both Cannes and Academy Awards for Best Documentary Film). Without putting it into consideration that China is still at its comparatively lower development stage, not acknowledging the gap between the average level of living, funds and technology of China and those of the developed countries, and ignoring the actually accumulated huge volume of pollutants - for example, much higher percentage of carbon dioxide in the air - that had been discharged by the developed countries during the past hundred years, it is unfair or even unethical to insist that China should shoulder the same amount of responsibilities as that of the developed countries, for such kind of arguments deprived Chinese people’s right to development.

     Though with the above solid counter-arguments, China does not take them as excuses for not accepting the correspondent share of responsibilities that suit its own capacity. China in fact has already been aware of the seriousness of environmental crisis as well as the urgency of finding resolutions for environmental challenges. Just as the report to 17th?National Congress of CPC states:[...] there are still quite a few difficulties and problems on our way forward. The outstanding ones include the following: Our economic growth is realized at an excessively high cost of resources and the environment [...]".

     Hence, China takes conserving energy and reducing emissions as the strategic breakthrough for economic restructuring and for the realization of sound and rapid development of the national economy. According to requirement in the “11th Five-year Plan”, till 2010, China will have at least 500 million tons of coal cut down and 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide reduced among the totally emission volume. Comparing with other countries’ targets on reducing the emission of greenhouse gas, China’s aimed volume of emission reduction is unprecedented.

     Moreover, the report to 17th?National Congress of CPC also put forward that: “Promote a conservation culture by basically forming an energy- and resource-efficient and environment-friendly structure of industries, pattern of growth and mode of consumption. We

 
 

 
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