卷 首 语
  封面故事
  环球扫描
  日    历
  读者来信
  绿色圆桌
  速    读
  镜    头
  热点关注
  绿色科普
  权威报告
  他山之石
  特别报道
  公民社会
  观    点
  青年论坛
  九州之声
  图文故事
  生活测验
  书    架
  人    物
  NGO之窗
  旅游天地
  ENN环境新闻
  特别报道
  绿色实践
  环境教育
 
  绿色内阁,引领绿色未来
 
  发布时间:2008/4/2 12:02:30  所属期数:2008.2    被阅览数:5420次  
 

 
 

          贾峰

    与西方发达国家相比,中国环境保护的历史要短得多,几乎是到1972年3月的官厅水库鱼污染事件才得到国家高层的重视。其时,西方发达国家在饱受以伦敦烟雾、水俣病、洛杉矶光化学烟雾为代表的“公害事件”之害后,才先后颁布了大批环保法律、法规和标准,创建了独立的环保机构,将污染防治和生态保护确立为政府的一项重要职能。

    1972年6月,当联合国召开人类环境会议时,中国政府派出一个大型代表团赴瑞典首都斯德哥尔摩参会,这是中国重返联合国后首次亮相大型国际会议。在“十年动乱”期间,中国能如此高调响应联合国的倡议,着实出乎国际社会的预料,更体现出周恩来总理对环境与国际关系的重视和高瞻远瞩。会议结束后,在听取代表团的汇报后,周总理指示要召开一次全国性的会议,专门研究部署环境保护工作。

    1973年8月,全国第一次环境保护会议召开。会后还制定了环境保护工作规划,成立了专门的环境保护机构——国务院环境保护领导小组办公室。1973年当之无愧成为中国环保元年。

    经过15年的实践和探索,1988年国家环境保护局正式独立,成为国务院领导的直属机构;十年后,国家环境保护局升格为正部级机构,改称国家环境保护总局。

    如果说36年前中国代表团参加斯德哥尔摩人类环境会议的目的主要是“观察和学习”,其地位还是一个环境保护领域的“学生”的话,那么今天随着中国经济实力跃升为全球第四和二氧化硫等污染物排放位列世界第一,中国已经成为解决全球环境挑战的主角。甚至有学者提出,“中国环保的成功将为全球可持续发展事业添彩,而中国的失败将令全球的努力黯然失色。”正是因为中国的特殊地位,其环保,尤其是应对气候变化的举措成为近年西方国家领导人来华访问的必谈话题。

    然而,对于一个有着13多亿人口,尚未实现小康的国家来说,中国今天所面对的困难远远超过了任何一个工业化国家所经历过的挑战。中国一方面要保持较快的经济增长速度,满足社会发展的需要,而另一方面又缺乏应对环境挑战的技术、资金和经验,能力明显不足,内外压力并存。在此背景下,如何发挥中国的后发优势,尽快实现可持续发展,如何避免重蹈西方国家“先污染后治理”的覆辙,如何确保中国实现又好又快的发展,如何建立资源节约型、环境友好型社会,如何在科学发展观的指引下实现生态文明,如何利用国际环境外交来争取权益与化解矛盾和压力至关重要。

    面对挑战,2007年11月29日,温总理在会见参加中国环境与发展委员会的外方代表时表示,“我希望能够成为一位环保总理”,这充分彰显了中国国家领导人对环保工作的高度重视和解决环境问题的决心。而100多天以后,参加全国人大十一次会议的近3000位代表用实际行动表达了对加强环保机构建设支持,环境保护部应运而生。

    环境保护部的诞生,是几代中国环保人的“光荣与梦想”,更体现了13亿中国人民对早日“喝上干净的水,呼吸清洁的空气,吃上放心的食物”的期待。

    我们有理由相信,中国环保人定会“上下一心,紧密团结,锐意进取,居安思危”(周生贤语),殚精竭虑,不辱使命,向全国人民交上一份满意的答卷。绿色内阁,必将引领我们走向绿色未来!

Green Cabinet Leads Us to a Green Future

By Jia Feng

    Compared with developed countries in the West, China has a much shorter history of environmental protection. Government officials did not pay much attention to this issue until the event of Guanting Reservoir pollution took place in 1972. Western countries, likewise, having long suffered from pollution problems like smog in London, Chisso-Minamata disease and Photochemical Smog in Los Angeles, later worked out series of environmental laws, regulations and standards; they established separate environmental institutes, adding environmental and ecological protection to their government functions.

    In June of 1972, Chinese government sent a large delegation group to the UN Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm. This was the first large-scale international conference with China after it resumed lawful seat in the UN. It was still in the midst of the ten chaotic years that China supported the UN’s proposal with such enthusiasm. This was out of the expectation of other countries, and showed the Premier Zhou Enlai’s understanding and foresight of environmental issue and international relations. After the delegation reported the result of this conference, Zhou Enlai decided to hold a nationwide conference for concrete plans of environmental protection.

    The First National Environmental Protection Conference took place in August, 1973. Environmental protection plans were worked out; a special environmental protection organization--Environment Protection Leading Group Office was established. 1973 became the first year of China’s environmental protection.

    National Environmental Protection Agency came as an independent agency directly under the State Council in 1988 after 15 years of practical efforts. Ten years after that, NEPA was renamed State Environmental Protection Administration of China, with the same level of ministry.

    36 years ago, Chinese delegation went to the Stockholm environment conference in order to “observe and learn” as a new comer in the field of environmental protection; today, China has already been playing a major part in global environmental protection, ranking the fourth in economy ?worldwide and the top with its emission of pollutant like SO2. Some scholars even say: the success of China’s environmental protection will contribute to the sustainability of global development; while its failure will reduce global efforts to “nothing”. With its special international status, China’s environmental protection, especially measures dealing with climate changes, has become an indispensable topic in foreign leaders’ visits to China.

    However, with its population over 1.3 billion and a well-off society to build, China is now facing difficulties far greater than those in any of the industrialized countries. China has to keep developing rapidly to meet social requirements; yet China needs more technology, financial support and experience to face challenges from both inside and outside. It is crucial to take obtained advantages to develop with sustainability, rather than repeating the “treatment after pollution” mistake made by Western countries. It is also important to understand the way to build an ecological civilization in an energy- and resource-efficient and environment-friendly society guided by scientific outlook on development, and get support and reduce conflicts and pressures with environmental diplomacy.

    Faced with these challenge, Premier Wen Jiabao said: “I want to be an environmental premier” when meeting foreign delegation of China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development on November 29th, 2007. This demonstrates the attention of the Chinese leaders on environmental protection and the determination to solve these problems. Over 100 days later, nearly 3000 representatives presented at the Eleventh National People’s Congress showed their support with practical work—Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China has been established.

    The birth of the Ministry has realized the “glory and dream” of several generations of China’s staff people in environmental system. It embodies the expectations of 1.3 billion Chinese people for the day when they can “drink clear water, breath clean air and eat quality-safe food.”

    We have full reason to believe that Chinese staff people in environmental system will certainly “work together closely for the same belief, make great progress and be prepared for danger in times of safety…” (Zhou Shengxian’s words); with their hard work up to the great duty on their shoulders, they will not disappoint their people. Green Cabinets is surely going to lead us to a green future!